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incorporated non-profit corporation Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding:
A Selected Bibliography

Catherine Morris

Media, Conflict and Society

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This bibliography focuses on media portrayals of conflict, peace journalism, and the role of the media in social conflict. See also the bibliography pages on Conflict Analysis. See some definitions of dispute resolution processes. Also of interest may be the Peacemakers Trust resource pages on conflict, media and society, and listings of alternative news sources intended as research resources for those in the fields of conflict studies, journalism and communication.

RAP21. "Conflict Reporting: The Role of the Media". The Business of Newspapers. 1 (January 14, 2004). Available

Allan, T., and J. Seaton. The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence. London: Zed Books, 1999.

Arno, A., and W. Dissanayake. The News Media in National and International Conflict. London: Westview Press, 1984.

Assefa, Hizkias. "The World Council of Churches and the Sudan Civil War." In New Approaches to International Mediation, edited by Chris Mitchell and Keith Webb. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Baumann, Melissa, ed. Media and Conflict. Special edition Track Two 7(4) (December 1998). Capetown: Centre for Conflict Resolution, University of Capetown, 1998.

Bennett, Tony. "Theories of the Media, Theories of Society." In Culture, Society and the Media, edited by Michael Gurevitch et al. London: Methuen, 1982.

Biazoto, Joice. "Peace journalism where there is no war. Conflict-sensitive reporting on urban violence and public security in Brazil and its potential role in conflict transformation." Conflict and Communication Online 10(2) 2011. Online at

Boler, Megan. "Critical Media Literacy and War." In Special Issue on Media Literacy. Orbit Magazine 35(2)(May 2005).

Botes, Johannes. "Extending Media Roles in Areas of Conflict." Crosslines Global Report, Vol. 28. Geneva: Crosslines Communications Ltd., 1997.

Botes, Johannes. "Journalism and Conflict Resolution" Media Development 43(4) (1996): 6-10.

Botes, Johannes. "Media Roles in International Conflict: The Debate." Track Two. 7(4) (December, 1998): 4-6,46.

Botes, Johannes. "Journalism and Conflict Resolution." Media Development XLIII (4) (1996): 6-9. London: World Association for Christian Communication,

Botes, Johannes, and C. Mitchell. "Constraints on Third Party Flexibility." In Flexibility in International Negotiation and Mediation, edited by D. Druckman and C. Mitchell, 168-184. Vol.542. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995.

Bratic, Vladimir. "Media effects during violent conflict: Evaluating media contributions to peace building." Conflict and Communication Online 4(2)(2005). Online at

Bratic, Vladimir. "Transnational political activism and global fusion: Case study - Independent Media Centers." Paper given at Media in Transition 2: globalization and convergence, May 10-12, 2002 at MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2002. Online at

Bromley, Michael, and Urte Sonnenberg. Reporting Ethnic Minorities and Ethnic Conflict: Beyond Good and Evil. Maastrict: European Journalism Center, 1998.

Burton, John. Conflict and Communication: The Use of Controlled Communication in International Relations. London; Macmillan, 1969.

Butler, D. The Trouble with Reporting Northern Ireland: The British State, the Broadcast Media and Nonfictional Representation of the Conflict. Aldershot, UK: Brookfield, 1996.

Carruthers, S.L. The Media at War. Communication and Conflict in the Twentieth Century. Basingstoke: MacMillan. 2000.

Cottle, Simon. Mediatized Conflict: Developments in Media and Conflict Studies. Maidenhead, Berkshire, UK: Open University Press, 2006.

Curran, James, and Michael Gurevitch. Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold, 1991.

Curran, James, and Jean Seaton. Power without Responsibility: The Press and Broadcasting in Britain. London, Routledge, 1988.

Curtis, Devon E. A. "Broadcasting Peace: An Analysis of Local Media Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Projects in Rwanda and Bosnia." Canadian Journal of Development Studies XXI (1)(2000): 141-155.

Davidson, Walter Philips. Mass Communication and Conflict Resolution. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

Department for International Development. Working with the Media in Conflicts and other Emergencies. UK: DFID, 2000.

Des Forges, Alison. "Leave None to Tell the Story": Genocide in Rwanda. New York and Paris: Human Rights Watch and International Federation of Human Rights, 1999. Online at

Du Toit, Peter. Reporting for Peace, A Training Manual for Journalists Grahamstown, SA: Rhodes University, 1996.

Dyson, Rose A. Mind Abuse: Media Violence in an Information Age. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 2000.

Ellul, Jacques. Propoganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes, Translated by Konrad Kellen and Jean Lerner. New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1965.

Emery, Michael and Edwin Emery. The Press and America: An Interpretative History of the Mass Media. Seventh edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Fowler, Roger. Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Frère, Marie-Soleil, with a contribution from Jean-Paul Marthoz. The Media and Conflicts in Central Africa Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2007. read a review.

Galtung, Johan. "High Road, Low Road: Charting the course for Peace Journalism." Track Two 7(4)(December 1998).

Galtung, Johan. "The Missing Journalism on Conflict and Peace and the Middle East" Transcend Articles Data Base. Romania: Transcend, 2005. (search articles database).

Galtung, Johan. "On the Role of the Media in Worldwide Security and Peace." In Peace and Communication, edited by T. Varis. San Jose, Costa Rica: Universidad para La Paz, 1986.

Galtung, Johan, and Mari Ruge. "Structuring and Selecting News." In The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the Mass Media, edited by Stanley Cohen and Jock Young. Revised edition. London: Constable, 1981.

Galtung, Johan, and Mari Holmboe Ruge. "The Structure of Foreign News: The Presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus Crises in Four Norwegian Newspapers." Journal of Peace Research 2 (1965): 64-91.

Geyer, Georgie. "Journalists: The New Targets, the New Diplomats, the New Intermediary People." In The Responsibilities of Journalists, edited by R. Schmuhl. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984.

Girardet, E., Bartoli, A. and Carmel, J., eds. Somalia, Rwanda and Beyond: The Role of International Media in Wars and Humanitarian Crises. Dublin: CROSSLINES Global Report, and The Italian Academy for Advanced Studies at Columbia University, 1995.

Goldstein, Tom. The News at Any Cost: How Journalists Compromise Their Ethics to Shape the News. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985.

Gowing, Nik. Media Coverage: Help or Hindrance in Conflict Prevention. Washington, DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1997.

Gowing, Nik. "Real-Time Television Coverage of Armed Conflicts and Diplomatic Crises: Does It Pressure or Distort Foreign Policy Decisions?" Working Paper 94-1. Cambridge, MA: The Joan Shorenstein Barone Centre on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1994.

Hackett, Robert A., and Yuezhi Zhao, eds. Democratizing Global Media: One World, Many Struggles. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005

Hamilton-Tweedale, B. The British Press and Northern Ireland: A Case Study in the Reporting of Violent Political Conflict. Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield Press, 1987.

Hammond, Philip, and Edward S. Herman, E., eds. Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis. London: Pluto Press, 2000.

Hammond, Philip. Media, War and Postmodernity. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Harwood, Richard C., and Jeff McCrehan. Tapping Civic Life: How to Report First, and Best, What's Happening in Your Community. 2nd Edition. College Park, MD Pew Center for Civic Journalism, 2000.

Hattotuwa, Sanjana. "The Role of the Media in Peace Processes." Written for 14th World Congress of Environmental Journalists, organised by Sri Lanka Environmental Journalists Forum (SLEJF), 27th - 31st October 2002, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Available online:

Hieber, Loretta. Lifeline Media: Reaching Populations in Crisis. A guide to developing media projects in conflict situations. Geneva: Media Action International, 2001

Howard, Ross. Conflict Sensitive Journalism: A Handbook. Vancouver: IMPACS, 2003.

Howard, Ross. Conflict Sensitive Reporting: State of the Art. A Course for Journalists.. Paris: UNESCO, 2009. Online at

Howard, Ross. An Operational Framework for Media and Peacebuilding. Vancouver: Institute for Media, Policy and Civil Society (IMPACS), December 2001.

Howard, Ross, Francis Rolt, Hans van de Veen, and Juliette Verhoeven. The Power of Media: A Handbook for Peacebuilders. Utrecht: European Centre for Conflict Prevention, European Centre for Common Ground and Institute for Media, Policy and Civil Society (IMPACS), 2003.

Hudson, M., and J. Stainer War and the Media. Stroud: Sutton, 1997.

Ignatieff, Michael. "Is Nothing Sacred? The Ethics of Television." In The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998.

International Council on Human Rights Policy. Journalism, Media and the Challenge of Human Rights Reporting. Versoix, Switzerland: International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2002. Available online at:

Jackson, Judy. Talk Mogadishu: Media Under Fire. Videorecording. 50 minutes. Toronto: Judy Films, Inc., 2003.

Jowett, G. S. and Victoria O'Donnell. Propaganda and Persuasion. 2nd ed. Newbury Park, California: Sage Press, 1992.

Kay, Linda, Rosemary C. Reilly, Kate Connolly, and Stephen Cohen. "Help or harm? Symbolic Violence, Secondary Trauma and the Impact Of Press Coverage on a Community." Journalism Practice 4(4)(2012): 421-438.

Keeble, Richard, John Tulloch, and Florian Zollman, eds. Peace Journalism, War and Conflict Resolution. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2010.

Kempf, Wilhelm. "Peace journalism: A Tightrope Walk Between Advocacy Journalism and Constructive Conflict Coverage." Conflict and Communication Online 6(2)(2007). Available at

Kempf, Wilhelm, ed. The Peace Journalism Controversy. Berlin: Regener, 2008.

Kempf, Wilhelm, ed. The Peace Journalism Controversy. Conflict and Communication Online 6(2) 2007. Online at

Keum, Heejo. "Personifying the Radical: How News Framing Polarizes Security Concerns and Tolerance Judgments." Human Communication Research 2005 31(3): 337-364.

Liebes, Tamar, James Curran, and Elihu Katz, eds. Media, Ritual and Identity. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Livingston, Steven. "Suffering in Silence: Media Coverage of War and Famine in the Sudan." In From Massacres to Genocide, edited by Robert Rotberg and Thomas Weiss. Washington DC, Brookings Institution, 1996.

Lynch, Jake. Debates in Peace Journalism. Sydney: Sydney University Press, 2008

Lynch, Jake. A Global Standard for Reporting Conflict. Oxford: Routledge, 2013.

Lynch, Jake. Reporting the World: A Practical Checklist For The Ethical Reporting of Conflicts in the 21st Century. Taplow, Bucks: U.K Conflict and Peace Forums, 2002.

Lynch, Jake. Reporting the World: The Role of Media Organizations and Journalists in Reporting on War, Conflict and Peace. Romania: Transcend Peace and Development Network, n.d.

Lynch, Jake. Using Conflict Analysis in Reporting The Peace Journalism Option 3 Paper developed for Conflict and Peace Forums, Taplow Court, Taplow, Bucks UK. Romania: Transcend Peace and Development Network, n.d.

Lynch, Jake. What's So Great about Peace Journalism? Global Media Journal 5(9)(Fall 2006). Available

Lynch, Jake, and Johan Galtung. Reporting Conflict: New Directions in Peace Journalism. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland Press, 2010.

Lynch, Jake, and Johan Galtung. Reporting Conflict: New directions in peace journalism. Australia: University of Queensland Press, 2011. read a review.

Lynch Jake, and Annabel McGoldrick. Peace Journalism. Gloustershire, UK: Hawthorn Press, 2005.

Magnusson, Thomas, ed. From Saigon To Sarajevo: Mass Media in Times of War. Stockholm, Geneva: International Peace Bureau, 1994

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extension of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

Melone, Sandra, Georgios Terzis, and Ozsel Beleli. "Using the Media for Conflict Transformation: The Common Ground Experience." In Berghoff Handbook for Conflict Transformation, edited by Martina Fischer et al. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2003. Available online:

Miller, D. Don't Mention the War: Northern Ireland, Propaganda and the Media. London: Pluto Press 1994.

Minear, Larry, Thomas G. Weiss and Colin Scott. The News Media, Civil War, and Humanitarian Action. Lynne Rienner, 1996.

Morrow, Lance. Evil: An Investigation. New York: Basic Books, 2003.

Mwalusanya, James L. "The Role of Journalist and Publisher in the Transitional Period to Multi-Party Democracy." In Ethnic Conflict and Political Change. Brussels: International Federation of Journalists, 1994.

Netherlands Association of Journalists, ed. The Role of the Media in Conflict Prevention and Peace Building: Report of a Seminar. The Hague: The Netherlands Association of Journalists, 20 February, 2002.

Norris, Pippa. Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government, and the Public. New York: Routledge, 2003.

O'Kelly, Charlotte G. "Black Newspapers and the Black Protest Movement, 1946-1972." Phylon 41, (4) (1980): 313-324.

Olien, C.N., G.A.Tichenor, & P.T Tichenor. "Media and the Stages of Social Conflict", Journalism Monographs 90 (November 1984).

Olien, C., G. Donohue, and P. Tichenor. "Community editor's power and the reporting of conflict." Journalism Quarterly 47(1968): 472-78.

Onadipe, Abiodun, and David Lord. African Media and Conflict. London, UK: Conciliation Resources, 1999.

Parenti, Michael. Inventing Reality: The Politics of News Media New York: St. Martins Press, 1993.

Peleg, Samuel. "Peace Journalism through the Lense of Conflict Theory: Analysis and Practice." Conflict and Communication Online 5(2)(2006) Online at:

Perez, Marianne H. Moving Mainstream Media Towards a Culture of Peace MA thesis, European University Center for Peace Studies, Stadtschlaining/Burg, Austria. Romania: Transcend, May 2006. Available (search publications data base)

Philo, Greg. "Bad News from Israel: Media Coverage of the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict." Miftah.ort, 2003.

Philo, Greg, and Mike Berry. Bad News from Israel. London: Pluto Press, 2004.

Potter, W. James. On Media Violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage,1999.

Reljic, Dusan. "News Media and Transformation of Ethno-Political Conflicts." In Berghoff Handbook for Conflict Transformation, edited by Martina Fischer et al. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2002. Available online:

Richards, Trudie, and Denel Rehberg-Sedo. "Journalists rely too heavily on spinmeisters." Media Magazine 10 (4)(Fall 2004):18-19, 38.

Richards, Trudie, and Brent King. "An Alternative to the Fighting Frame in News Reporting." Canadian Journal of Communication 25(4) (2000).

Rosen, Jay. What Are Journalists For? New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

Rubenstein, Richard, Johannes Botes, Frank Dukes, and J.B. Stephens, J.B. Frameworks for Interpreting Conflict: A Handbook for Journalists. Fairfax, Va.: Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University, 1994.

Schmidt, Rosemarie, Sandra Lewis, and Catherine Morris. "What's Missing in this Picture?" Interaction 17 (1/2) (2004): 9-11.

Scrimger, Judith, and Trudie Richards. "Public relations battles and wars: journalistic clichés and the potential for conflict resolution." Public Relations Review 29(4) (November 2003): 485-492.

Shinar, Dov, and Wilhelm Kempf, eds. Peace Journalism: The State of the Art. Berlin: Regener, 2007.

Slocum, J. David, ed. Violence and American Cinema. New York and London: Routledge, 2001.

Taylor, Philip. War and the Media. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992.

Thompson, Allan, ed. The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. Ottawa: Pluto Press, Fountain Publishers and IDRC, 2007. Available online at IDRC:

Thrall, A. Trevor. War in the Media Age. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press, 2000.

Tichenor, P. J., G. A.Donohue, and C. N. Olien. Community Conflict and the Press. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1980.

Tshisungu Wa Tshisungu, Jose. Les Medias et Les Defis des Droits de la Personne (The Media and The Human Rights Challenge). Montreal: Canadian Human Rights Foundation, 1992.

Vincent, R.C. "The Troubles as Portrayed in Four Irish Newspapers." Gazette 59 (6) (1997): 495-519.

Wasburn, Philo C. The Social Construction of International News: Were Talking about Them, They're Talking about Us. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2002.

Waugh, Evelyn. Scoop. London: Chapman and Hall, 1948.

Wolfsfeld, Gadi. Media and the Path to Peace. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Wolfsfeld, Gadi. Media and Political Conflict: News from the Middle East. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Wolfsfeld, Gadi. The News Media and Peace Processes: The Middle East and Northern Ireland. Peaceworks 37. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2001.

Youngblood, Steven. Peace Journalism Principles and Practices: Responsibly Reporting Conflicts, Reconciliation, and Solutions. New York: Routledge, 2016

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